Considers constructs & theories related to legalized & illicit drug use, abuse & addiction across the lifespan. Focuses on biological, psychological, social antecedents of drug use, & on biopsychosocial consequences of drug use & dependence within developmental contexts. Examines specific drug addictions & treatment approaches. Health psychology, counseling psychology, developmental psychology, neuropsychology, medicine, health education, & public health perspectives are considered. Emphasizes the interplay of the knowledge & understandings developed from these perspectives, & applies this knowledge to research & counseling practice.