Steinhardt Institute fellow Dr. Stella Flores (UT Austin) discusses the implications of reversing affirmative action in college admissions with NPR
November 1, 2022
Dr. Stella Flores highlights the growing diversity, enduring segregation, and the role of education in the leadership pipeline for the country. "The data speak for themselves. And it's nice to have a hope, but hope does not increase college completion. Hope does not equalize opportunities."
Steinhardt Institute panel on "Affirmative Action & the Supreme Court" featuring Dr. Mike Hoa Nguyen & Dr. Stella Flores
October 13, 2022
From Inside Higher Ed: "As the Supreme Court prepares to hear two related cases that could re-shape or ban affirmative action in America, New York University’s Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy convened a panel of experts to discuss the legal battle and what might happen next."
Teboho Moja presents at International Doctoral Research Conference on Higher Education
April 16, 2022
In a joint panel session, students at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Kumasi, Ghana participated virtually with NYU students around the world. Moja's speech was titled, “Pandemics and the changing nature of research: How should researchers respond?”
Ann Marcus reflects on Cardona's first year as US Secretary of Education
March 17, 2022
From Diverse Issues in Higher Education: "Dr. Ann Marcus, professor of higher education and director of The Steinhardt Institute of Higher Education Policy at New York University (NYU), raised another point of contention among many in the higher education community. The Biden administration has been voicing support for doubling the Pell Grant for low-income students, but that has not yet happened..."
Teboho Moja on geographic bias in academic research assessment
January 27, 2022
From University World News (Africa Edition): "Ongoing concerns over geographical biases in the evaluation of scientific research that could be disadvantaging Africa scholars remain and suggest the need for ongoing and targeted efforts to address inequalities in knowledge production and publication...
“The fact that this geographic bias in academic research assessment is still occurring on a large scale is, in itself, an indicator of the struggles with unequal power relations between the North and South as far as knowledge production is concerned,” [Teboho Moja & Fabrice Jaumont] said. “Studies have indicated that there is more cited work of African scholars’ work if they publish jointly with a scholar from the northern hemisphere,” they added."
Steinhardt Institute Fellows Liang Zhang (NYU) & Tatiana Melguizo (USC) reflect on Class of 2020 Student Debt Report
December 1, 2021
From Diverse Issues in Higher Education: "The Institute for College Access and Success (TICAS) recently released a report on student debt loads among borrowers who graduated in 2020 with a bachelor’s degree from public and private non-profit colleges. Key findings from the report, titled “Student Debt and the Class of 2020,” noted that debt at many institutions stayed high amid the pandemic, though with regional and institutional differences."
Liang Zhang (NYU Professor of Higher Education) is quoted raising considerations including the debt-burden for students who do not graduate, borrowing trends at for-profit colleges, and the question of private loans; while Tatiana Melguizo (USC Rossier School of Education Professor) offers reflections on barriers to college for underrepresented and undocumented students, especially in light of the pandemic, and the varying economic value of degrees by institution type.
Panel on "Missing Men" highlighted by Diverse Issues in Higher Education
November 18, 2021
"NYU’s Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education hosted a Zoom panel Thursday entitled “The Missing Men: How Can Higher Education Respond?” The timing couldn’t have been more appropriate. Hours earlier, the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC) released data showing that during the COVID-19 pandemic, male college enrollment declined at significantly higher rates than that of women, just the latest evidence of a trend that has stretched back decades."
Ann Marcus: College affordability considerations for NY Gov. Hochul
August 17, 2021
"'Most community college students are not full-time. They can’t afford to be full-time so they’re not eligible for Excelsior,' said Marcus...The scholarship 'was planned in a few days with no real input from people in the higher education sector,' said Marcus. With a new governor in the office next week, Marcus hopes that Hochul could appoint a panel to reexamine the program and include more educators in the discussion."
Ann Marcus on an educated workforce & navigating economic shock
July 19, 2021
"The extreme inequality that besets the country will impede economic progress and social harmony. There are already evidence of precipitous enrollment declines in public community colleges and many four-year colleges due to financial hardship and prolonged isolation and stress. The most important thing the government can do is to dramatically increase Pell grants and other forms of financial aid for students and to assist broad access institutions in creating outreach and support to their students and communities."
Stella Flores: The Elephant in the Room for the New Education Secretary
January 4, 2021
"The racial and wealth inequality built into our nation's most viable system of opportunity -- the education sector -- should be at the forefront of any policy conversation, argues Stella M. Flores."
Ann Marcus reflects on college rankings
October 19, 2020
Ann Marcus and a panel of other experts respond to key questions about college rankings on the topics of value, return on investment, endowments, affordability, and post-college employment prospects.
An interview with Dr. Stella Flores about equitable college access
October 1, 2020
Dr. Stella Flores talks with Ithaka S+R about policies to ensure equitable access to well-resourced colleges and universities.
Teboho Moja offers insight on improving the US community college system
August 17, 2020
Teboho Moja and a panel of other experts respond to key questions about improving the U.S. community-college system on the topics of free tuition, educational quality, transfer and workforce preparation, pressing issues and potential solutions.
Ann Marcus quoted in POLITICO article on the use of college admissions tests
August 10, 2020
Ann Marcus was quoted in the POLITICO article, Momentum Grows for Removing Testing in CUNY Undergrad Admissions, on the issue of high stakes testing and college accessibility.
Matthew Mayhew: Half of college graduates may be headed for unemployment
May 12, 2020
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) revealed last week that 14.7 percent of Americans (or roughly 23 million) are now unemployed as a result of COVID-19. It’s the highest unemployment rate since the Bureau started tracking unemployment on a monthly basis in 1948, with some saying the real number is actually much higher.
The Bureau’s report also detailed job losses by industry, with some of the greatest losses in industries that college students flock to: Education and health services (-2,544,000), professional and business services (-2,128,000) and government (-980,000).
January 28, 2020
A new study finds that active shooter incidents off campus and politics are key factors that led state legislators to pass laws allowing concealed weapons on college and university campuses between 2004 and 2016.
“We assumed that campus carry legislation might be driven by active shooter incidents in educational contexts,” David R. Johnson, lead author of the research, sociologist and assistant professor of higher education leadership in the College of Education at the University of Nevada, Reno, said. “Our analysis found that bill introduction is associated with active shooter incidents anywhere within a legislator’s state, but not specifically those occurring at schools and universities.”
SIHEP hosts national scholars to discuss Mobility in Higher Education
November 06, 2019
"Higher education is often viewed as the great engine of opportunity and economic mobility. With mobility research evolving, there is a consistent need to investigate the various mechanisms on an individual, institutional, and governmental level that both help and hinder progress," said Ann Marcus, professor and director of the Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education, introducing a day-long inquiry into issues of access, student success, and the impact of higher education. Held on October 25, 2019, the event brought scholars, faculty, and higher education stakeholders together for two events designed to deepen the conversations about stratification and mobility in higher education.
Stella Flores wins Harvard Graduate School of Education's 2019 Alumni Council Award
April 4, 2019
NYU's Stella Flores, Associate Professor of Higher Education and Director of Access and Equity at the Steinhardt Institute, is the 2019 recipient of Harvard's Alumni Council award for "Outstanding Contribution to Education". More information and the full article is available on Harvard's website.
Liang Zhang shares insight on college student debt for millennials and their parents
February 8, 2019
NYU's Liang Zhang, Professor of Higher Education recently spoke with Newsday to discuss the current state of student debt for millenial students in Long Island, NY and across the nation. Read the full article on Newsday's website.
Liang Zhang weighs in on excellence at Taiwanese universities
October 11, 2018
NYU's Liang Zhang, Professor of Higher Education recently spoke with Times Higher Education to discuss Taiwan's excellence initiative and schemes created to aid universities that are not meeting excellence standards. More information can be found here.
Stella Flores to discuss diversity in admissions and curriculum on On Campus Radio
September 23, 2018
NYU's Stella Flores, Associate Professor of Higher Education and Director of Access and Equity at the Steinhardt Institute, recently appeared on the latest episode of On Campus Radio. She discussed the Harvard affirmative action case and the implications for race-conscious admissions on campuses across the country. More information and the recording of the episode can be found here.
Drew Allen and Gregory Wolniak discuss the impact of tuition increases on diversity
May 18, 2018
Steinhardt Institute Fellow Drew Allen and Director of NYU's Center for Research on Higher Education Outcomes Gregory Wolniak penned a piece that has appeared in University World News and The Conversation on the negative impact of tuition increaes on campus diversity. Looking at over 1,600 public institutions, Allen and Wolniak found that for every $1,000 increase in tuition at four-year nonselective public universities, diversity among full-time students decreased by 4.5 percent.
Frances Stage and Sarah Randall Johnson discuss the weak relationship between high-impact college practices and graduation rates
April 25, 2018
Higher Education Professor Frances Stage and doctoral alumna Sarah Randall Johnson (2016) discuss the limited relationship between ten high-impact college practices to graduation rates at four-year public colleges and universities in the United States in a recent Inside Higher Ed article. The original article, published in the Journal of Higher Education challenges some of the commonly held ideas of high-impact practices at public institutions.
Patrick Callan discusses the legacy and future of the California Master Plan
April 4, 2018
Steinhardt Institute Fellow and President of the Higher Education Policy Institute Patrick Callan discussed the history of the California Master Plan in The Chronicle of Higher Education. In particular, Mr. Callan argued that the unique tripartite system of the University of California, the California State Universities, and the community colleges has struggled to collaborate since the plan's inception. Furthermore, Mr. Callan noted that an update to the master plan would face many hurdles.
Teboho Moja reflects on 10 years of University World News - Africa
March 30, 2018
Professor Teboho Moja penned a piece in University World News reflecting on the importance of the coverage of international higher education news, particularly of African higher education developments. She notes how the African edition has grown in readership due to the publication's reporting on important policy changes and key meetings concerning the higher education development agenda across the continent as many African countries have moved into mass higher education through the use of public-private partnerships and quality accreditation programs.
Liang Zhang wins Spencer Grant to Study G.I. Bill on College Participation
January 22, 2018
This winter, Professor Liang Zhang was awarded a grant of $49,960 from the Spencer Foundation, a prominent funder of education research. Professor Zhang’s research will focus on the impact of the Post-9/11 GI Bill on college participation among veterans with service-connected disabilities. Professor Zhang explained his upcoming research in a project summary: “This study fills an important void in post-secondary education research by examining the impact of the educational benefits provided by the Post-9/11 GI Bill on college enrollment for veterans with service-connected disabilities, as well as its potentially heterogeneous impact across groups of different age, gender, race/ethnicity, and disability ratings.”
Teboho Moja gives keynote address at Global Research Council Africa regional meeting in Zambia
December 1, 2017
Professor Teboho Moja gave a keynote address at the Global Research Council Africa regional meeting on November 24 in Livingstone, Zambia. Her talk focused on the links between globalization, higher education and development, and how higher education institutions as knowledge producers play a key role in science diplomacy.
Liang Zhang discusses the increase in veterans enrolled in U.S. higher education under the Post-9/11 G.I. Bill.
August 9, 2017
In a recent Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis article, NYU's Liang Zhang, Professor of Higher Education, spoke of the three percent increase in veterans that took advantage of the educational benefits under the Post-9/11 G.I. Bill. Professor Zhang found consistent and positive enrollment effects across veterans with all levels of education, with those already holding master’s degrees taking the most advantage of the bill’s educational benefits.
Stella Flores comments on U.S. Justice Department's targeting of diversity programs
August 2, 2017
In a recent Inside Higher Ed article, NYU's Stella Flores, Associate Professor of Higher Education and Director of Access and Equity at the Steinhardt Institute, discusses the risks to campus diversity under reported Justice Department targeting of affirmative action programs.
Ann Marcus discusses new leadership at the State University of New York System
April 26, 2017
In a recent Politico article, NYU's Ann Marcus, Director of the Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy and Professor in Higher Education, comments on the appointment of Dr. Kristina Johnson as the new chancellor at the State University of New York.
Ann Marcus comments on the challenges of New York's free tuition plan
April 14, 2017
In a recent Politico article, NYU's Ann Marcus, Director of the Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy and Professor in Higher Education, speaks about some of the logistical challenges facing Governor Cuomo's recent plan to cover tuition costs at public two-year and four-year institutions for students with family incomes under $125,000.
Stella Flores comments on demographic change and predicting student success
March 13, 2017
In a recent Chronicle of Higher Education article, NYU's Stella Flores, Associate Professor of Higher Education and Director of Access and Equity at the Steinhardt Institute, speaks about demographic change in the U.S. and the challenges for ensuring student success.
Steinhardt Institute hosts meeting with Israeli university and college presidents
March 10, 2017
The Steinhardt Institute welcomed over a dozen presidents from several Israeli universities and colleges for a three-day meeting to foster dialogue between these higher education sectors. Ann Marcus, Director of the Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy and Professor in Higher Education led the meeting with Yaffa Zilbershats, Chairperson of the Planning and Budgeting Committee for Israel’s Council for Higher Education.
Stella Flores discusses the next possible challege to affirmative action programs
February 4, 2017
In a recent U.S. News and World Report article, NYU's Stella Flores, Associate Professor of Higher Education and Director of Access and Equity at the Steinhardt Institute, comments on the use of Asian American communities in the latest challenge to the legality of affirmative action programs.
Stella Flores is ranked among the top 200 in RHSU Edu-Scholar Public Influence Rankings in 2017
January 11, 2017
As presented in a recent Education Week article, NYU's Stella Flores, Associate Professor of Higher Education and Director of Access and Equity at the Steinhardt Institute, has been ranked among the top university-based scholars in the U.S. doing the most to influence educational policy and practice.
Ann Marcus addresses Cuomo's college tuition plan in recent Chalkbeat article
January 10, 2017
In a recent Chalkbeat article, Ann Marcus, Director of the Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy and Professor in Higher Education, addresses Cuomo's plan to exclude part-time students from free tuition. She speaks to the challenges for part-time student explaining that research shows the educational plans of part-time students are more easily derailed and adding, “Most people who are part-time students, they are all people who feel like they either can’t or don’t want to give up their job.”
Ann Marcus comments on Cuomo's tuition-free two-year college plan
January 3, 2017
Ann Marcus, Director of the Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy and Professor in Higher Education, was quoted in a recent Politico article discussing Govenor Andrew Cuomo's plans to introduce a proposal for tuition-free two-year college.
Stella Flores presents “The Effect of English Language Learner Program Participation on College-Access Outcomes”
November 21, 2016
Stella Flores, Associate Professor of Higher Education and Director of Access and Equity at the Steinhardt Institute, presents her research on the complex and controversial public policy issues surrounding English language learners entitled “The Effect of English Language Learner Program Participation on College-Access Outcomes” at the NYU Institute of Human Development and Social Change.
Teboho Moja addresses critical contributions needed for sustainability in African higher education
September 4, 2016
Teboho Moja, Clinical Professor of Higher Education, was recently quoted in University World News article, Multiple Positive Signs for African Higher Education. In the article, she discusses the importance of higher education to Africa's knowledge economy and strategies for sustainability in African higher education. As he gets ready to roll out his agenda for 2017, Gov. Andrew Cuomo plans to introduce a proposal for tuition-free two-year college
Stella Flores discusses the Racial College Completion Gap in Ed-Talks
February 18, 2016
Stella Flores, Director of Access and Equity, the Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy and Associate Professor of Higher Education, recently gave an Ed-Talk at the American Educational Research Association's Knowledge Forum on the Race College Completion Gap.
Ann Marcus quoted in Market Watch on proposal for free tuition at Harvard
January 19, 2016
Ann Marcus, Director of the Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy and Professor in Higher Education, was quoted in a recent Market Watch article, Free tuition at Harvard? Sounds great. Here's the problem, discussing the proposal by five candidates running to be part of one of Harvard’s governing bodies to make tuition free to all undergraduates at Harvard.
Stella Flores' research on percent plans featured in ETS Education Research Update
The latest issue of ETS Education Research Update features research related to the Supreme Court's recent decision in Fisher v. University of Texas, which favored the need for educational diversity with strict scrutiny from the courts on how to achieve it. Among the papers is Texas Top Ten Percent Plan: How It Works, What Are Its Limits, and Recommendations to Consider by Professors Stella Flores, New York University and The Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy and Catherine Horn, University of Houston and The Institute for Educational Policy Research and Evaluation. They have done extensive research to provide a new synthesis of research on percent plans. Their paper discusses college admissions strategies appropriate within the nation's developing law by examining percent plans, an alternative race-neutral path to college admissions in Texas, California and Florida. View the paper here.
Stella Flores weighs in on the Supreme Court reconsidering Affirmative Action
December 10, 2015
Stella Flores, Associate Professor of Higher Education and Director of Access and Equity at the Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy, spoke on the Brian Lehrer Show to discuss the Supreme Court reconsidering Fisher v. University of Texas, a case that could have major consequences for affirmative action programs across the country. The affirmative action method in question supplements the "percent plan" and provides a secondary admissions policy based on race. Flores says her research proves that the percent plan alone does not meet the "educational mission" of the university.
Flores has been named NPR Source of the Week.
She has been quoted on the topic in the following publications:
18 Leading Higher Education Research Centers and Institutes Call for Knowledge on Campus Shootings
October 19, 2015
The Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy joins other leading higher education research centers and institutes in a call for further knowledge and research on the increasingly critical issue of university and college campus shootings. See article.
Ann Marcus quoted in U.S. News & World Report article on academic tenure law in Wisconsin
June 12, 2015
Ann Marcus, Director of the Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy and Professor in Higher Education, was quoted in the U.S. News and World Report article, Scott Walker, Professors Clash over Tenure in Wisconsin on June 12th regarding the state legislature's budget plan which may remove legal safeguards for academic tenure in Wisconsin.
NYU Steinhardt host panel on undocumented college students
April 2, 2015
The Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy hosted a panel discussion, “Undocumented College Students: In the Shadows of the Ivory Tower.” The event covered findings of America’s first survey of undocumented college students, published earlier this year by researchers at UCLA.
The UCLA Institute for Immigration, Globalization, and Education released the findings of its nationwide study of undocumented undergraduates, which for the first time, sheds light on the needs and challenges of undocumented college students. The report, In the Shadows of the Ivory Tower: Undocumented Undergraduates and the Liminal State of Immigration Reform, carries implications for policy makers as well as colleges and universities.
Media coverage on our event, "Private Dollars for Public Purposes: Are Foundations Setting the Agenda for Higher Education Reform?"
October 25, 2013
The Chronicle of Higher Education: Foundations Attract More Scrutiny as Their Influence on Academe Grows
"Powerful private foundations are drawing increased scrutiny as their influence on the agenda for higher-education reform has grown, but their role is not a particularly new one in the history of American academe, according to panelists at a discussion on Friday at New York University.
The discussion, 'Private Dollars for Public Purposes: Are Foundations Setting the Agenda for Higher-Education Reform?,' considered whether the dominance of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Lumina Foundation is sidelining disparate voices on important policy debates."
Steinhardt Institute Delegation attends From Principles to Practice: Higher Education Policy and Research Project Management
January 20-25, 2013
In January 2013, Prof. Teboho Moja, Steinhardt Institute faculty member, led a student delegation to Cape Town, South Africa to participate in a one-week seminar examining research project management and policy formation in higher education. 40 masters and doctoral students from Africa, Australia, Europe and the U.S. attended the event sponsored by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) in Cape Town, January 20-25, 2013
Participating professors gave students a firsthand look at the research-policy nexus by using their own externally-funded research projects to illustrate policy effects, project impact, ethics, funder expectations, and trends in research among other issues. In addition to the lecture series, students collaborated in international working groups to draft research grant proposals addressing salient issues in higher education. Students presented their research grant proposals at the seminar and were critiqued by participating faculty and professional grants managers.
The event was feature in University World News. Those interested in learning more about the content and participants can visit the Higher Education Development Association website (Hedda) where podcasts and related-interviews will be posted.
Participating faculty members included:
- Nico Cloete, Extraordinary Professor of Higher Education, University of Western Cape
- Hamish Coates, LH Martin Institute, University of Melbourne
- Peter Massen, Professor, University of Oslo
- Julian May, Professor of Development Studies, University of Western Cape
- Teboho Moja, Professor, Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, New York University
- Johan Muller, Professor, School of Education, University of Cape Town
- Bjørn Stensaker, Professor, Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Oslo
December 13, 2012
California Higher Education: Diminishing Opportunity and Competitiveness
"Any Californian with a modicum of concern about the future of the state should be dismayed by the state's massive disinvestment in one of its major public assets. Since 2008, state and local support for public higher education has been reduced by $2.4 billion, a cut of nearly 20 percent. The passage of Proposition 30 creates a plateau on this downward path, but it will neither restore lost college opportunity to thousands of Californians nor assure the future availability of college access."
SIHEP Symposium: Economic and Racial Diversity in American Higher Education: A Current and Future Perspective under Obama and the Supreme Court
March 30, 2012
The Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy hosted a symposium to address economic and racial diversity in American higher education on March 30, 2012. The panelists were scholars who contributed to the recently published, Diversity in American Higher Education: Toward a More Comprehensive Approach edited by Lisa M. Stulberg, associate professor of educational sociology, and Sharon Lawner Weinberg, professor of statistics and applied psychology, at NYU Steinhardt.
Ada Meloy, General Counsel for the American Council on Education, served a moderator for a discussion with Lia Epperson (American University Washington College of Law), Bridget Terry Long (Harvard Graduate School of Education), and Mitchell L. Stevens (Stanford University). Panelists discussed the ways that colleges and universities can foster affordable and accessible education for all students, as well as how legal, financial, and sociological issues affect economic and racial diversity.
Ann Marcus Who Deserves a College Education?
August 3, 2011
In The Century Foundation's final summer policy forum of 2011, “Who Deserves a College Education?” panelists explored the debates over the benefits of a college education, inequalities in college access, how we define “merit,” and socio-economic and racial affirmative action policies in higher education. Dr. Marcus gave the opening remarks on how our cultural obsession with status has impacted socio-economic and racial affirmative action policies in higher education.
Teboho Moja spoke at "A Symposium on Refugee Youth: The Relationship of Education to Health"
April 29, 2011
International and domestic public health professionals discussed the importance of health and education in youth development and the impact of interrupted education on health.
Panel sessions included: “The Impact of Migration on Youth”; “Working with Migrant Youth”; and “Migrant Youth from Zimbabwe, A Case Study.”
Publication: Asians in the Ivory Tower: Dilemmas of Racial Inequality in American Higher Education by Robert Teranishi
Institute researcher Robert Teranishi draws on his vast research to present this timely and compelling examination of the experience of Asian Americans in higher education. Asians in the Ivory Tower explores why and how Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are important to our nation's higher education priorities and places the study of AAPI college participation within a broad set of conditions through which all students must navigate as they pursue higher education. Dr. Teranishi captures the intersections of individual agency, social conditions, and organizational structures as synergetic forces that result in a range of postsecondary outcomes for subpopulations within the larger body of AAPIs.
Transcending narrow generalizations about this understudied population, this seminal book:
- Debunks false stereotypes about AAPI students and their educational trajectories.
- Offers a unique empirical perspective on racial stratification in higher education through case studies that mix quantitative data with narratives of lived stories.
- Examines the educational experiences and routes to college for AAPIs, and examines broader issues around racial inequality and debates about affirmative action.
- Captures the nuances and complexity of race, offering theoretical perspectives that can be applied to other populations.
Dr. Teranishi is an associate professor of higher education in New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human Development as well as principal investigator of the National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander research in Education, also at New York University.
Publication: Policy and Performance in American Higher Education: An Examination of Cases across State Systems by Richard Richardson, Jr. and Mario Martinez
Policy and Performance in American Higher Education presents a new approach to understanding how public policy influences institutional performance, with practical insight for those charged with crafting and implementing higher education policy.
Public institutions of higher learning are called upon by state governments to provide educational access and opportunity for students. Paradoxically, the education policies enacted by state legislatures are often complex and costly to implement, which can ultimately detract from that mission. Richard Richardson, Jr., and Mario Martinez evaluate the higher education systems of five states to explain how these policies are developed and how they affect the performance of individual institutions.