Our Effect Sizes and Results in the Classroom and at Home

Our Third Clinical Trial: 

Principal Investigator, Sandee McClowry. Co-Principal Investigators  Erin O’Connor and Elise Cappella. (2008–2012). Testing the efficacy of INSIGHTS in enhancing the academic learning context. Institute of Education Sciences (R305A080512)

A group randomized trial was conducted to test the efficacy of INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament in supporting the academic learning context of primary grade classrooms in underrresourced urban schools. Twenty-two elementary schools were our partners in conducting this study. All schools were in low-income neighborhoods and served families with comparable socio-demographic characteristics. Participants included 122 kindergarten and first grade teachers and 345 children and their parents. After baseline data was collected, 11of the 22 schools were randomly assigned to INSIGHTS. The other schools hosted a supplemental reading program. All schools received 10 weeks of intervention after which a number of analyses were conducted.

Here is a table of our effect sizes:


Here are abstracts of our publications that explain our results: 

O’Connor, E.E., Cappella, E., McCormick, M.P & McClowry, S.G. (in press). An examination of the efficacy of INSIGHTS in enhancing the academic learning context. Journal of Educational Psychology.  

Two-level hierarchical linear models were used to examine both within and between child changes in achievement across kindergarten and first grades. Results revealed that children enrolled in INSIGHTS experienced significantly faster growth in math and reading achievement and sustained attention than children enrolled in the supplemental reading program. In addition, although children participating in INSIGHTS evidenced decreases in behavior problems over time, children enrolled in the supplemental reading program demonstrated increases. Effects on math and reading were partially mediated through a reduction in behavior problems, and effects on reading were partially mediated through an improvement in sustained attention.

5 points results 3


Cappella, E., O’Connor, E. E., McCormick, M., Turbeville, A., Collins, A., & McClowry, S. G. (in press.). Classwide efficacy of INSIGHTS: Observed student behaviors and teacher practices in kindergarten and first grade. Elementary School Journal.

Kindergarten and first grade classrooms (n = 120) were observed in the fall prior to the intervention and in the spring following the intervention. Multi-level random effects regression models showed an INSIGHTS main effect on observed teacher practices of emotional support from fall to spring. This effect was magnified in first grade. First grade INSIGHTS classrooms also had higher teacher practices of classroom organization and lower classwide off-task behaviors over the school year compared to first grade attention control classrooms. Kindergarten INSIGHTS classrooms improved classwide student engagement from fall to spring compared to kindergarten attention control classrooms. 

5 points results 4


O’Connor, E.E., Cappella, E., McCormick, M.P & McClowry, S.G. (in press.)  Enhancing the academic development of shy children: A test of the efficacy of INSIGHTSSchool Psychology Review. 

Growth curve modeling showed that shy children in INSIGHTS evidenced more rapid growth in critical thinking and math than their shy peers in the attention control condition during kindergarten and the transition to first grade. The effects of INSIGHTS were partly indirect through enhanced classroom engagement. 


Results from a previous prevention trial:

Sandee McClowry, Principal Investigator; Co-Investigators David Snow & Catherine Tamis-LeMonda. (1998–2008). A school-based intervention for inner city children.National Institute of Nursing Research (R01NR04781)

McClowry, S. G., Snow, D. L., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2005). An evaluation of the effects of INSIGHTS on the behavior of inner city primary school children Journal of Primary Prevention, 26, 567-584.

A prevention trial was conducted to evaluate whether INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament as compared to a Read Aloud attention control condition was more effective in reducing behavior problems among inner city children. 

A repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance with parental depression as a covariate was conducted to examine the children's behavior over the course of the intervention. In order to test the impact of INSIGHTS for the overall sample and to determine whether the intervention was differentially effective for children diagnosed with a disruptive disorder versus those who did not receive a diagnosis, two and three-way interactions were examined and found to be significant. The INSIGHTS intervention was more effective than Read Aloud in reducing children's problem behaviors at home across both the diagnosed and non-diagnosed groups, but demonstrated a significantly greater efficacy among children who were at diagnostic levels compared to those who were within normal levels.

ADHD results