Action Research- M. Barberos, A. Gozalo, E. Padayogdog
THE EFFECT OF THE TEACHER'S TEACHING STYLE ON STUDENTS' MOTIVATION ACTION RESEARCH SUBMITTED BY: MARIA THERESA BARBEROS, ARNOLD GOZALO, EUBERTA PADAYOGDOG SUBMITTED TO: LEE TZONGJIN, Ed.D. CHAPTER I THE EFFECT OF TEACHERS' TEACHING STYLE ON STUDENTS' MOTIVATION
The teachers, being the focal figure in education, must be competent and knowledgeable in order to impart the knowledge they could give to their students. Good teaching is a very personal manner. Effective teaching is concerned with the student as a person and with his general development. The teacher must recognize individual differences among his/her students and adjust instructions that best suit to the learners. It is always a fact that as educators, we play varied and vital roles in the classroom. Teachers are considered the light in the classroom. We are entrusted with so many responsibilities that range from the very simple to most complex and very challenging jobs. Everyday we encounter them as part of the work or mission that we are in. It is very necessary that we need to understand the need to be motivated in doing our work well, so as to have motivated learners in the classroom. When students are motivated, then learning will easily take place. However, motivating students to learn requires a very challenging role on the part of the teacher. It requires a variety of teaching styles or techniques just to capture students' interests. Above all, the teacher must himself come into possession of adequate knowledge of the objectives and standards of the curriculum, skills in teaching, interests, appreciation and ideals. He needs to exert effort to lead children or students into a life that is large, full, stimulating and satisfying. Some students seem naturally enthusiastic about learning, but many need or expect their instructors or teachers to inspire, challenge or stimulate them. "Effective learning in the classroom depends on the teacher's ability to maintain the interest that brought students to the course in the first place (Erickson, 1978). Not all students are motivated by the same values, needs, desires and wants. Some students are motivated by the approval of others or by overcoming challenges.
Teachers must recognize the diversity and complexity in the classroom, be it the ethnicity, gender, culture, language abilities and interests. Getting students to work and learn in class is largely influenced in all these areas. Classroom diversity exists not only among students and their peers but may be also exacerbated by language and cultural differences between teachers and students.
Since 2003, many foreign professional teachers, particularly from the Philippines, came to New York City to teach with little knowledge of American school settings. Filipino teachers have distinct styles and expressions of teaching. They expect that: education is interactive and spontaneous; teachers and students work together in the teaching-learning process; students learn through participation and interaction; homework is only part of the process; teaching is an active process; students are not passive learners; factual information is readily available; problem solving, creativity and critical thinking are more important; teachers should facilitate and model problem solving; students learn by being actively engaged in the process; and teachers need to be questioned and challenged. However, many Filipino teachers encountered many difficulties in teaching in NYC public schools. Some of these problems may be attributed to: students' behavior such as attention deficiency, hyperactivity disorder, and disrespect among others; and language barriers such as accent and poor understanding of languages other than English (e.g. Spanish).
As has been said, what happens in the classroom depends on the teacher's ability to maintain students' interests. Thus, teachers play a vital role in effecting classroom changes.
As stressed in the Educator's Diary published in 1995, "teaching takes place only when learning does." Considering one's teaching style and how it affects students' motivation greatly concerns the researchers. Although we might think of other factors, however, emphasis has been geared towards the effect of teacher's teaching style and student motivation.
If teacher's teaching style would fit in a class and is used consistently, then students are motivated to learn.
Purpose of the Study
The main thrust of the study was to find out the effect of the teacher's teaching style on students' motivation.
Action Research Questions
This paper attempted to answer specific questions such as: 1. What is the effect of teacher's teaching style using English As A Second Language Strategies on student's motivation? 2. How does teacher's teaching style affect students' motivation? 3. What could be some categories that make one's teaching style effective in motivating students?
Research Design/Methods of Collecting Data
The descriptive-survey method was used in this study, and descriptive means that surveys are made in order to discover some aspects of teacher's teaching style and the word survey denotes an investigation of a field to ascertain the typical condition is obtaining. The researchers used questionnaires, observations, interviews, students' class work and other student outputs for this study. The questionnaires were administered before and after ESL strategies were applied. Observation refers to what he/she sees taking place in the classroom based on student's daily participation. Student interviews were done informally before, during, and after classes. Several categories affecting motivation were being presented in the questionnaire.
Research Environment and Respondents
The research was conducted at IS 164 and IS 143 where three teachers conducting this research were the subjects and the students of these teachers selected randomly specifically in the eighth and sixth grade. The student respondents were the researchers' own students, where 6 to 7 students from each teacher were selected. Twenty students were used as samples.
To measure students' motivation, researchers used questionnaires which covered important categories, namely: attitudes, student's participation, homework, and grades. Open-ended questions were also given for students' opinion, ideas and feelings towards the teacher and the subject. The teacher's teaching style covers the various scaffolding strategies. The data that were collected from this research helped the teachers to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses so as to improve instruction. The results of this study could benefit both teachers and students.
The researchers personally distributed the questionnaires. Each item in each category ranges from a scale of 5-1 where 5 rated as Strongly Agree while 1 as Strongly Disagree. The questionnaires were collected and data obtained were tabulated in tables and interpreted using the simple percentage. While the open ended questions, answers that were given by the students with the most frequency were noted.
Review of Related Literature
Helping students understand better in the classroom is one of the primary concerns of every teacher. Teachers need to motivate students how to learn. According to Phil Schlecty (1994), students who understand the lesson tend to be more engaged and show different characteristics such as they are attracted to do work, persist in the work despite challenges and obstacles, and take visible delight in accomplishing their work. In developing students' understanding to learn important concepts, teacher may use a variety of teaching strategies that would work best for her/his students. According to Raymond Wlodkowski and Margery Ginsberg (1995), research has shown no teaching strategy that will consistently engage all learners. The key is helping students relate lesson content to their own backgrounds which would include students' prior knowledge in understanding new concepts. Due recognition should be given to the fact that interest, according to Saucier (1989:167) directly or indirectly contributes to all learning. Yet, it appears that many teachers apparently still need to accept this fundamental principle. Teachers should mind the chief component of interest in the classroom. It is a means of forming lasting effort in attaining the skills needed for life. Furthermore teachers need to vary teaching styles and techniques so as not to cause boredom to the students in the classroom. Seeking greater insight into how children learn from the way teachers discuss and handle the lesson in the classroom and teach students the life skills they need, could be one of the greatest achievements in the teaching process.
Furthermore, researchers have begun to identify some aspects of the teaching situation that help enhance students' motivation. Research made by Lucas (1990), Weinert and Kluwe (1987) show that several styles could be employed by the teachers to encourage students to become self motivated independent learners. As identified, teachers must give frequent positive feedback that supports students' beliefs that they can do well; ensure opportunities for students' success by assigning tasks that are either too easy nor too difficult; help students find personal meaning and value in the material; and help students feel that they are valued members of a learning community. According to Brock (1976), Cashin (1979) and Lucas (1990), it is necessary for teachers to work from students' strengths and interests by finding out why students are in your class and what are their expectations. Therefore it is important to take into consideration students' needs and interests so as to focus instruction that is applicable to different groups of students with different levels.
CHAPTER II PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter presents and analyzes data that answer the subsidiary problems of the study. Table I showed that out of the 20 student respondents, 50% were males and 50% females. Of the male students respondents, only 2 males belong to the high group while 8 males from the low group. For the females, each of the group had 5 respondents. It also showed that there were 7 respondents from the high group and 13 came from the low group.
Table 1:Respondents by Gender
Table 2 showed that out of the 20 students respondents, 80% of students were of Hispanic origin; 10% of respondents were White (not of Hispanic origin); and 10% were Black (not of Hispanic origin); while 0% were of American Indian, Asian or Pacific Islander ethnicity. The results also showed that among the Hispanic, 40% came from the low and 40% came from the high group. There were only 10% White respondents from both groups. There were 10% respondents who were Black from both groups.
Table 2: Respondents by Ethnicity
|Ethnicity Group||American||Hispanic||White (not of Hispanic origin)||Black (not of Hispanic origin)||Asian or Pacific Islander||Others||Total|
Table 3 showed that 15% of the respondents had grades between 96-100 in Science, 0% between 91-95, while 15% scored between 86-90, the same as the range between 81-85. However, on the low group 25% of the respondents had grades between 71-75, 5% each had a range between 66-70 and 61-65; while 15% of the respondents did not have Science last year.
Table 3: Grades in Science
|100-96||95-91||90-86||85-81||80-76||75-71||70-66||65-61||Below 60||No Science last year||Total|
Table 4 revealed that for students' motivation-attitude, more than half of the respondents agreed that they are always excited to attend classes this school year. 75% of the students believed that Science is fun and interesting. Similarly, 80% of the respondents agreed that Science is important for them and 60% said that they love Science.
For student motivation-participation, it showed that more than half of the respondents affirm that they are always prepared in their Science classes. 75% of the students participated in Science activities; 50% did their Science assignments consistently.
For student motivation-homework, it could be noted that 60% of the students completed their homework on time and 50% found homework useful and important. 85% of the students said that they got enough support to do homework at home and 90% said that the teachers checked their homework.
For student motivation-grades, 65% got good grades in Science. 65% of the respondents said that they study their lessons before a test or a quiz. More than half of the respondents disagreed that the terms or words used in the test were difficult to understand. Less than half of the respondents agreed tests measure their understanding of Science concepts and knowledge, while 80% thought that grading is fair. On the other hand, the data under teaching style as noted on table 4 showed that 65% of the students strongly agreed that they have a good relationship with their Science teacher and no one disagreed. 75% noted that their Science teachers used materials that were easy to understand. 60% said that their teachers presented the lessons in many ways. More than half of the students said that they understood the way their Science teachers explained the lesson while 25% were not sure of their answer. 75% said that they got feedback from their Science teacher.
Table 4: Data on the Five Categories
|CATEGORIES||5 Strongly Agree||4 Agree||3 Not Sure||2 Disagree||1 Strongly Disagree|
|1. I am always excited to attend my science class this school year.||10||45||30||10||0|
|2. Science is fun and interesting.||15||60||15||5||5|
|3. I hate Science. It is not important for me.||5||0||15||20||60|
|4. I don't like Science at all. It is difficult to learn.||0||0||10||30||55|
|5. I love Science. It gives me opportunities to experiment, discover and explore the things around me.||15||45||30||5||5|
|1. I'm always prepared in my Science class.||20||35||30||5||5|
|2. I participate actively in Science activities by asking questions.||35||40||15||10||0|
|3. I do my Science assignments consistently.||25||25||45||5||0|
|4. Science activities do not help me understand concepts easily.||5||5||10||40||40|
|5. I feel bored in my Science class.||0||15||25||20||40|
|1. I complete my Science homework on time.||15||45||20||20||0|
|2. I find homework very useful and important.||25||25||30||10||10|
|3. Science homework is difficult to do.||0||15||25||40||20|
|4. I don't get enough support to do my homework at home.||0||5||10||40||45|
|5. My teacher does not check my homework at all.||0||10||0||30||60|
|1. I got good grades in Science.||25||40||30||5||0|
|2. I study my lessons before a test or quiz.||20||45||25||5||5|
|3. The terms/words used in the test are difficult to understand.||0||15||30||45||10|
|4. The test always measures my understanding of Science concepts and knowledge learned.||10||30||20||20||20|
|5. The grading is not fair.||0||10||10||35||45|
|E. TEACHING STYLE|
|1. I have a good relationship with my Science teacher.||65||20||15||0||0|
|2. My Science teacher uses materials that are easy to understand.||45||30||15||5||5|
|3. My Science teacher presents the lesson in a variety of ways.||30||30||15||20||5|
|4. I don't understand the way my Science teacher explains the lesson.||10||10||25||40||15|
|5. I don't get any feedback about my understanding of the lesson from my Science teacher.||15||5||5||5||2|