Visual Biofeedback Can Help Children Challenged by ‘R’ Sound, Finds Study by Tara McAllister Byun

Using ultrasound technology to visualize the tongue’s shape and movement can help children with difficulty pronouncing “r” sounds, according to a small study by NYU’s Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development and Montclair State University.

The ultrasound intervention was effective when individuals were allowed to make different shapes with their tongue in order to produce the “r” sound, rather than being instructed to make a specific shape. The findings appear online in the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research.

The “r” sound is one of the most frequent speech errors, and can be challenging to correct. For other sounds – such as “t” or “p” – speech pathologists can give clear verbal, visual or tactile cues to help children understand how the sound is created. “R” is difficult to show or describe in an easy-to-understand fashion.

In addition, most speech sounds are produced in the same way, but with “r,” normal speakers use widely different tongue shapes to create the sound. The two primary strategies to create the “r” sound include a retroflex tongue shape, where the tongue tip is pointed up, and the bunched tongue shape, where the tongue tip is pointed down and body of tongue bunches up toward the top of the mouth.

Up to 10 percent of children have speech sound disorders, according to the National Institutes of Health. Some children respond well to conventional forms of speech therapy, but others have errors that persist despite their therapists’ best efforts. A growing body of evidence suggests that treatment incorporating visual biofeedback, which uses various technologies to create a dynamic visual representation of speech, could fill this need.

“The idea that you could get around the challenges with ‘r’ sounds by showing children their tongues as they are talking is really appealing to clinicians,” says Tara McAllister Byun, an assistant professor in NYU Steinhardt’s Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders and the study’s lead author. “That’s what ultrasound technology lets us do.”

Linguists have used ultrasound in the past to study basic functions of speech, and in recent years, speech pathologists have begun exploring using ultrasound to treat children with speech errors. An ultrasound probe – similar to ones used in cardiac and tissue imaging – is held under the chin, and sound waves capture real-time images of the tongue. The images provide both the child and speech pathologist with information about the tongue’s position and shape.

Using the ultrasound images as a guide, children learn how to manipulate their tongues, and speech pathologists advise them on how to make adjustments to better achieve different sounds.

Several case studies and small studies suggest that ultrasound biofeedback can successfully correct “r” speech errors. Byun and her colleagues set out to gather systematic evidence on the effectiveness of the treatment, studying eight children with difficulty pronouncing “r” sounds. Seven of the eight had previous speech therapy that was unsuccessful.

Four children participated in the initial eight-week study. They were taught to make a bunched tongue shape, guided by ultrasound, in an effort to better pronounce “r.” The researchers saw only small improvements among the four participants.

However, while trying to create a bunched tongue, one child stumbled upon a retroflex tongue shape and was able to improve her “r” sound. As a result of her success, the researchers altered their study design to allow participants to choose their own tongue shape, with individualized guidance from speech language pathologists.

A different four children participated in the second study over an eight-week period. Using ultrasound to visualize their tongues, all four participants in the second study showed significant improvement in their “r” sounds.

“Our second study offers evidence that when flexibility is given to choose a tongue shape, rather than a one-size-fits all approach, ultrasound biofeedback treatment can be a highly effective intervention for children with trouble pronouncing ‘r’ sounds,” Byun says.

The researchers noted that the two studies were not a controlled comparison, thus additional systematic research is needed before drawing strong conclusions about the importance of individualized tongue shapes.

In addition to McAllister Byun, study authors include Elaine R. Hitchcock and Michelle T. Swartz of Montclair State University. The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH R03DC 012883).

 

Celebrating Art and Occupational Therapy: A Profile of Alumna Anitta Boyko Fox

Anitta Boyko and her mother, Helen, at Commencement (1945)

Back in the day – graduation 1945 — Anitta Boyko Fox (BS ’45, MS ’47) was among the first wave of students to earn a degree at NYU’s newly established occupational therapy program.  Outside a war was winding down and Anitta found her calling working with returning veterans and helping a team of medical professionals create what is now known as the Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine.

In rehabilitation medicine, Anitta found a meaningful career working hands-on with patients and contributing to the literature of the profession.  Her observations and insights are included in Ordinary Miracles: True Stories About Overcoming Obstacles and Surviving Catastrophes, a book edited by the late Deborah Labovitz, a professor and chair of Steinhardt’s Department of Occupational Therapy.

Fred Boyko, a self-portrait

Fred Boyko's portrait of Anitta

Anitta, who turned 90 this fall, emigrated from Vienna in 1939 to escape Nazi persecution.  (As an 11-year old, she lived through the terrifying night of Kristallnacht in her family’s Vienna apartment.)  The family – sponsored by Charles Komar, a distant cousin — found a first home in New York City across from the George Washington Bridge, where Anitta’s father, Fred Boyko, an architect and artist, bartered portraits of the landlord’s children for a few months rents.

This month, a retrospective of Boyko’s art, “From Kristallnacht to Carnegie Hall: The Art & Life of Fred Boyko,” is on view at the Aidekman Family Jewish Community Campus in Whippany, New Jersey.  The exhibit includes paintings that were shipped out of Vienna after Kristallnacht, as well as commissioned portraits Boyko created in his Carnegie Hall artist’s studio.

The Boyko family is also the subject of a documentary, ‘Unconquerable Souls,” created by the Holocaust Council of Greater Metro West.

Anitta Boyko Fox at Alumni Day

Throughout the years, NYU has been a place where Anitta has felt a deep sense of community and belonging.  She met her late husband, Sheldon Fox, MD, at NYU Bellevue, where he served as a medical resident and later as an assistant clinical visiting professor of radiology.  Their daughters, Serena J. Fox (MED ’79) and and Judith C. Fox (IFA, ’84),  are also NYU graduates.

Anita is grateful to NYU for “taking a chance” on her, for giving her a scholarship that enabled her to do work that has made a difference in people’s lives.

“As someone who had arrived in a new place filled with uncertainty — displaced from her country — NYU was home to me,” Anitta said. “It still is.”

 

 

 

 

From NYU Stories: Carolyn Dimitri on How Farm Fresh Vegetables Can Help Improve Diets of Low-Income Families

YouTube Preview ImageSpeaking from New York City’s Union Square Greemarket at the height of the fall harvest, Steinhardt’s Carolyn Dimitri discusses how vouchers for produce can help improve the diets of the economically disadvantaged. Though low-income families often go without fruits and vegetables due to lack of access or inability to pay, Dimitri, an associate professor of food studies, and colleagues found that market vouchers for SNAP (food stamps) recipients can change that.

In a study of 281 such women in New York, San Diego, and Boston who received an extra $10 voucher when they shopped at farmers markets, more than half reported an increase in their vegetable consumption. The finding validates a new Agricultural Act of 2014 program incentivizing low-income families to shop at farmers markets.

Still, Dimitri cautions that relying on markets for healthy food can be problematic, because they are usually open on limited days and closed in the winter.

Steinhardt’s Program in Educational Theatre Presents ‘Little Shop of Horrors,’ Oct. 24th – Nov. 2nd

Little Shop of Horrors, Howard Ashman and Alan Menkin’s award-winning off-Broadway musical, will come to NYU for two fall weekends (October 24 – November 2) in a production staged by students from the Steinhart’s educational theatre program.

Just in time for Halloween, the musical — a comedy horror that features rock music — tells the story of Seymour Krelborn, an orphan who works in a florist’s shop and discovers an exotic plant that lives off human blood. Soon the plant, “Audrey II,” grows into a sinister, ill-tempered, R&B-singing carnivore that offers to help Seymour achieve his dreams in love and fame in exchange for keeping the supply of blood flowing. Swayed by his desire to be noticed by fellow florist, Audrey, Seymour caves and strikes a deal with the sanguine plant.

Originally a film directed by Roger Corman, the musical Little Shop of Horrors first achieved fame as an Off-Off-Broadway production, with book and lyrics by Howard Ashman and music by Alan Menken. Ashman and Menken are known for their later work on Disney hits The Little Mermaid and AladdinLittle Shop of Horrors ran at the Orpheum Theatre for five years, and won the Evening Standard award for Best Musical in 1985.

The entire cast and crew of the production is comprised of undergraduate and graduate students in the Program in Educational Theatre at Steinhardt, and will include four puppets to showcase the man-eating plant at various stages of its growth. Josephine Cho, Kordell Draper and Christopher Gooley will serve as puppeteers.

Steinhardt doctoral student Rachel Whorton is the show’s musical director.  Amy Cordileone, a teacher from the Program in Educational Theatre, will direct choreography. Cordileone has worked on choreography for Meta (which she also directed), The Heart Cycle, Underground: The Ben Folds Project, Two Noble Kinsmen, Alice: The Looking Glass Girl (also directed), Les Misérables, and Cotton Patch Gospel.

The cast includes Andrew Anzul as Seymour, Bethany Moore as Audrey, Zak Ferentz as Mushnick, and Katie Braun as Audrey II (the plant). Andrew Coopman plays the Dentist, and the urchins will be played by Rachel Gubow, Chelsea Flores and Alexandra Richardson. Other cast members include Josephine Cho, Liana Costable, Kordell Draper, Emma Vissicchio, Christopher Gooley, and Alexis Lounsbury.

The Crew includes Elizabeth Lozado, Shayna Blecherman, Seohee “July” Bok, Sophie Rosenthal (Dance Captain), Ashley Miskoff (Dance Captain), Mark Lussier (assistant stage manager), Orianna Miles (assistant stage manager), Jamie Lerner (assistant director), and Talia Krispel (production stage manager).

General admission is $15 General, or $5 for students and seniors. Tickets are available at tickets.nyu.edu or by phone at 212.998.4941. Tickets can also be purchased in person at the box office at 566 LaGuardia Place (Washington Sq. South).

Performances will take place in the Black Box Theatre at 82 Washington Square East (between W. 4th St. and Washington Pl.) on the following dates:
Friday, October 24 at 8pm
Saturday, October 25 at 8pm
Sunday, October 26 at 3pm
Thursday, October 30 at 8pm
Friday, October 31 at 8pm
Saturday, November 1 at 8pm
Sunday, November 2 at 3pm.

About NYU Steinhardt Department of Educational Theater. Steinhardt’s Department of Educational Theater focuses on training a new generation of theatre artists and educators for careers in schools, cultural institutions, and community settings. The department is the oldest of its kind within the United States, and focuses on both traditional and non-traditional performance techniques. For more information about this department, contact ed.theatre@nyu.edu.

 

Inside Books: Lisa Gitelman Looks at the Evolution of Printed Matter

In Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents, Lisa Gitelman, chair of the Department of Media, Culture, and Communication, offers a history of the written document.  Drawing on examples from 150 years of publishing, Gitelman shows how technology has transformed our experience of the written word.

From memo to menu; library card to green card, Gitelman explores a vast array of printed matter and examines how documents are created – and recreated. (“One of the things people do with documents is copy them,” Gitelman writes.) Reproducing documents through letterpress printing, photocopying, and beyond have changed our understanding of the document.

In the first half of the book, Gitelman reflects on the history of the document and the waning of old technologies.  In the second half, she looks at the portable document format (PDF) and the emergence of new forms of documents.  She notes that the PDF and the PC’s ubiquitous “My Documents” folder illustrate how the concept of document continues to evolve.

NYU Steinhardt Joins Nationwide Effort to Improve Quality of Math and Science Education

NYU Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development joins 100Kin10 in the launch of “Blow Minds, Teach STEM,” a campaign to inspire undergraduates and recent graduates with strong science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) skills to become teachers.

The U.S. ranks 27th in math and 20th in science among industrialized countries. In his 2011 State of the Union Address, President Obama called for 100,000 new STEM teachers in an effort to improve the quality of math and science education.

100Kin10 – a network of 200 multi-sector organizations – responded by aiming to recruit 100,000 STEM teachers by the year 2021. The campaign, “Blow Minds, Teach STEM,” introduces STEM teaching as an impactful career option for STEM majors and recent graduates.

NYU Steinhardt was one of the early partners in 100Kin10, and together with NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering and the Jhumki Basu Foundation, committed to help retain and increase the supply of excellent STEM teachers.

The Clinically Rich Integrated Science Program (CRISP), a NYU Steinhardt master’s degree program funded by the U.S. Department of Education’s Race to the Top, serves as one pipeline for training teachers. The one-year teacher residency program prepares career changers and college graduates to become STEM teachers in public middle and high schools.

Using an innovative model, the aspiring teachers work with students beginning their first day in the program, and spend a school year immersed in a New York City classroom to co-teach STEM courses. Approximately 60 teachers have received their M.A. degrees through CRISP since its creation four years ago; NYU aims to train 300 new teachers through CRISP and its undergraduate math and science programs by 2021 as part of 100Kin10.

“Science, technology, engineering and mathematics are vital to our future, the future of our country and the future of our children. STEM pervades every aspect of our lives,” says Pamela Fraser-Abder, professor of teaching and learning and director of science education at NYU Steinhardt. “This campaign can show people that teaching STEM is exciting, innovative, and cutting-edge.”

The “Blow Minds, Teach STEM” campaign celebrates the power of teaching and amplifies the importance of STEM education to a broad audience. A significant social media presence drives attention and traffic to the web-based hub that includes resources for potential STEM teachers, STEM-focused stories and news, and entertaining elements such as a career quiz and shareable GIFs. An animated music video – which features a teacher-turned-rock star who captivates her class with “mind-blowing” examples of STEM – concludes with the statement, “STEM teachers will give us the next generation of inventors, problem-solvers, and Neil deGrasse Tysons.”

Singer-songwriter John Legend, actor Michael Ian Black, Reddit co-founder Alexis Ohanian, human-centered design firm IDEO, media firm GOOD, “Father of the Internet” Vint Cerf, Time’s first Person of the Planet Sylvia Earle, and the U.S. Department of Education have lent their voices to “Blow Minds, Teach STEM.” They are joined by multitudes of parents, educators, scientists, mathematicians, and entrepreneurs, along with a chorus of passionate citizens.

Note: Aspiring STEM teachers interested in learning more about NYU’s master’s programs in Science and Math Education are encouraged to attend an information session on education master’s programs at NYU Steinhardt. The information session will be held on Wednesday, Oct. 22 from 6-8 p.m. at 239 Greene Street (between West 4th St. and Washington Pl.).

Those seeking information on STEM education will visit the STEM lab to hear from Megan Collins of the New York State Education Department, Fraser-Abder, and current students. The students will talk about their paths to becoming STEM educators and what motivates them to be in their chosen field.


 

Hopes and Dreams for Youth in Kenya: An Interview with Associate Professor Elisabeth King

Boys on a mountainside, Byumba, Rwanda.

Elisabeth King, an associate professor of international education, explores issues related to conflict and peace building in sub-Saharan Africa.  King’s book, From Classrooms to Conflict in Rwanda (Cambridge University Press, 2014), has been awarded the Outstanding Canadians Leadership Award from the Ontario History and Social Science Teachers Association. She has received grants from the United States Institute for Peace, the United Nations Development Program, the Folke Bernadotte Academy, and Columbia University’s Earth Clinic.

You work on issues related to conflict resolution and peace-building in Sub-Saharan Africa.  What draws you to this part of the world?

I have always had a passion for issues of conflict resolution and peace-building.  While violent conflict has been common the world over, and in fact, a number of convincing studies show that conflict as a whole has been declining worldwide,  as a continent, Africa has known continuous war for upwards of 50 years.  It remains the part of the world with the most state-based conflicts.  Sub-Saharan Africa also faces the most remaining challenges for sustainable social development.

At the same time, despite the challenges, when I have the privilege to work in places like Rwanda and Liberia, I am always reminded about the strength of human spirit. As clichéd as it might sound, there is something very special about the places I have the chance to work in Africa that makes me want to go back time and time again.

Elisabeth King

Can you talk a little about your work in Kenya?

I am just back from Nairobi where I wrapped up data collection on a project that I began in the summer of 2013.  This project questions widely-held assumptions about highly youthful populations – in Kenya the median age is 19; it’s 37 in the US; youth’s aspirations for education and life – delving into issues like hope, expectations, and role models; and youth’s involvement in violence and peace-building.  One of the dimensions that is so exciting about this project is that I have gotten to speak with youth themselves, both in school and out-of-school, about what they want and hope for their lives. I have also spoken with non-governmental organizations and government involved in youth programming. The next part is to further explore the consequences – potentially positive and negative – of aspirations that are likely to remain unmet.

What is perhaps even more exciting is how this project is rooted in collaboration here at Steinhardt and the learning we can leverage from that collaboration. My terrific colleague, Dana Burde, is exploring these same issues, using the same research design and instruments, in Karachi, Pakistan. We can then come together and examine the similarities and differences in our findings between these two contexts with, on the one hand, hugely youthful populations, similar diversity of violence, much international education and youth programming, ranked side by side on the Human Development Index, and on the other, very different cultures.

Liberia, May 2009.

What can a researcher bring to the table that can help children and youth in developing countries?

I am always interested in research that answers questions that are not only important for scholarship but that have significant and realistic links to policy and practice.  The common thread throughout my research agenda is asking if and how theories of peace-building and development really work, or not, for people on the ground.

In this particular project, we have been speaking with NGOs involved in youth programming in Kenya and Pakistan.  We plan to work with one such organization to refine its programming, or even develop a new intervention, based on the findings from our qualitative work on youth aspirations. We then plan to rigorously evaluate the program.  It’s a dream for a researcher in terms of making the most of the opportunity we have to conduct this research, taking what youth themselves have to say, using that to craft a program that will help other youth, then testing it to see if it is indeed having the hoped-for impacts.

 

At Steinhardt’s New Student Convocation, a Discussion of ‘Wild’ and a Celebration of Student Art

A interdisciplinary discussion on 'Wild' ( from left to right): Beth Weitzman, Rene Arcilla, Okhee Lee, alumna Kate Weigel, and Kathleen Woolf.

The hero’s journey and the limits of physical endurance were among topics discussed at Steinhardt’s New Student Convocation on October 6th.  The event brought together 800 undergraduate students and a panel of Steinhardt faculty members for a celebration and discussion and Cheryl Strayed’s Wild, this year’s required freshman reading.  Wild tells the story of Strayed’s soul-searching journey on foot across the Pacific Crest Trail.

Emily McNally performed, 'Run Wild,' a song inspired by the new student reading.

Steinhardt Vice Dean Beth Weitzman moderated, “Journey as Challenge,” an interdisciplinary panel discussion with Professor Rene Arcilla (Humanities and Social Sciences in the Professions), Professor Okhee Lee (Teaching and Learning), Assistant Professor Kathleen Woolf (Nutrition, Food Studies, and Public Health) and alumna, Kate Weigel, (BA ’14) (Art and Art Professions).

'In Memory of Lady," a watercolor by Rachel Li

Arcilla and Lee offered perspectives on Strayed’s memoir, interpreting it through a literary lens, as well as through the point-of-view of a non-native speaker in a completely new culture.  Woolf, a physical therapist, and Wiegel, an alumna who pushed herself to the limits of her own physical endurance on a cross-country cycling trip, offered insight into how the body can adapt to stress and how the mind adapts to life-altering experiences.

“The truth is, if an experience doesn’t challenge you, it won’t change you,” Woolf said.

The convocation also celebrated the creativity of Steinhardt students who presented original art, music, and a video inspired by Wild.  The work of Emily McNally (Music and Performing Arts
), Rachel Li (Art and Art Professions), and Tyler James ( Music and Performing Arts), can be viewed at Express Steinhardt!

 


‘Familiar Talker Advantage’ is the Focus of Research by Susannah Levi of Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders

Research has shown that when adults are familiar with someone’s voice, they can more accurately – and even more quickly – process and understand what the person is saying. This concept, known as the “familiar talker advantage,” comes into play in situations where it is difficult to hear. For example, in a loud or crowded room, adults can better understand those whose voices they already know.

According to a study by NYU’s Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, familiar voices can improve spoken language processing among school-age children.   However, the advantage of hearing a familiar voice only helps children to process and understand words they already know well, not new words that aren’t in their vocabularies.

The findings, which were published online in August in the Journal of Child Language, suggest that children store information about a speaker to retrieve and harness at a later time, similar to what has been found for adult listeners.

However, little research has been done in children to see how they process familiar versus unfamiliar voices. Children are still acquiring language and their skills are less honed than adults, yet they are more adversely affected by background noise. If children also experience an advantage when hearing familiar voices, it is possible that the improvement in language processing could free up cognitive resources for other tasks.

“Most adults are good at adapting to the way people speak,” says Susannah Levi, assistant professor of communicative sciences and disorders at NYU Steinhardt and the study’s author. “It’s helpful to know that adults have an advantage with familiar speakers, because if you learn how a person talks, you can use that information to your benefit. We were interested in seeing if and when the advantage develops in children.”

The current study explored whether the familiar talker advantage is found in children ages seven to 12. Forty-one children participated in the study, first listening to a series of words and repeating them to give researchers a baseline for how accurately each child identified words.

The children then spent five days learning the voices of three German-English bilingual speakers, represented by cartoon characters in a computer program. The characters spoke a series of single words, and the children learned to identify the characters by their voices.

Finally, the children completed tasks in which they heard words spoken by six German-English bilingual speakers, and were asked to repeat the words. Three of the six speakers were the voices of the characters they had already learned.

Half of the words used in the task were common words children would likely know and use (such as cat, book, and hug), and half were less familiar or even unknown (such as loathe, sage, and void). The study used recordings of bilingual speakers to allow the researchers to test whether children acclimated to the speakers’ accents.

The study revealed that children could more accurately repeat the words spoken by familiar voices, demonstrating that their spoken language processing improved with familiar speakers. However, this improvement was limited to the words children were likely to know, and the familiarity was not useful for words they didn’t know.

“It didn’t matter who the children heard speak an unfamiliar word – a familiar voice or a stranger – because they were just as likely or unlikely to understand what was said,” says Levi.

Children with the poorest performance at the baseline testing showed the greatest benefit of hearing familiar speakers. In addition, despite learning three voices with German accents, the accents did not provide an advantage to the children when they heard unfamiliar German-accented voices.

Levi noted that the findings may have implications for children learning in environments with background noise.

“Adults and children can process language really well in quiet environments or with headphones on. But most of life, including classroom learning, is done in environments that aren’t silent,” Levi says. “This study shows that children were able to integrate knowledge of what a person sounds like and use this to their advantage. A potential benefit is that when there’s background noise and kids are listening to a familiar voice, like a teacher’s, kids use the familiarity to their advantage.”

This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, part of the National Institutes of Health (1R03DC009851-01A2).

 

Familiar voices can improve spoken language processing among school-age children, according to a study by NYU Steinhardt. © thinkstock/Photos.com

 

A Harvest Party for NYU’s Urban Farm Lab

Ananya Parekh picked cilantro at the NYU Urban Farm Lab's fall harvest celebration.

NYU’s Urban Farm Lab celebrated its second harvest on October 2nd with an outdoor farm festival.  Guests picked the summer’s crop of vegetables and feasted on food prepared with the bounty of the harvest season.

Second grader, Ananya Parekh, was among the guests who walked the vegetable beds in search of the ripest offerings.  Ananya took home a bag of greens for her school lunch. A huge fan of vegetables, she wrote a poem to commemorate the event: “Vegetables, are crunchy, munchy, and sweet,/The rainbow colors is what I love to eat!”

The NYU Urban Farm is located behind the Silver Tower residences on the corner of Wooster and West Houston Streets in New York City.  NYU’s farmers harvest in plain sight of New York City traffic and pedestrians.

The lab is an outdoor classroom that promotes hands-on activities related to urban agriculture and food systems. Under the leadership of Jennifer Berg, director of the graduate food studies program at NYU Steinhardt, and Amy Bentley, associate professor of food studies at NYU Steinhardt, the farm brings together faculty, students, and community members who plant, water, weed, and more to grow crops in the heart of the city.

After several years of planning, the NYU Urban Farm Lab grew its first crops in 2013, thanks to a Green Grant from NYU’s Office of Sustainability.

Now in its second year, the farm is seeing growth – and not just in its plants.

Nasturtium, an edible flower, bloomed in NYU's Urban Farm Lab.

“Our ‘Introduction to Urban Agriculture’ course went from one section of students to three full sections,” says Bentley. Faculty and students also built working compost bins, and improved the farm’s soil through compost application and rotating crops with cash and cover crops.

“Even though we had a late start getting our plants outside thanks to last winter’s weather, we still had a great season,” says Laurel Greyson, manager of the NYU Urban Farm and adjunct instructor of food studies.

This season the farm grew beets, kale, collards, cabbage, broccoli, swiss chard, salad mix, arugula, little gem lettuce, turnips, radishes, peppers, eggplant, tomatoes, carrots, herbs, and flowers.

(Photo credit:  Debra Weinstein)