From its inception in the early 1960's, Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy has become a significant presence in the music therapy world, with hundreds of certified practitioners and several training/research centers worldwide. Researchers work closely with therapists in analyzing music therapy sessions to better understand the processes that make this work effective.

The research staff at our Center has pioneered the development and application of research methods to study creative and developmental processes in music therapy. This work has generated numerous scholarly publications and clinical training videotapes. Along with senior clinicians, doctoral and master's students in both the music therapy and applied psychology programs at NYU have undertaken a wide range of research projects based on the study of archived video recordings of clinical sessions.

Areas of Study

The overriding focus of research currently being undertaken at the Nordoff-Robbins Center is the examination of interdisciplinary collaboration as it is applied in treatment. The clinical areas includes a variety of people in need including stroke survivors and children with cochlear implants. Another research priority is our ongoing examination of how music therapy improves the communication and social skills of children on the autism spectrum.

Efficacy of treatment in improving communication and social interaction skills in children with autism spectrum disorders

Participants in Nordoff-Robbins music therapy between the age of 2 and 12 diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will receive 30-minute sessions of individual music therapy weekly over the course of a 9-month clinical year. The Vineland-II is administered to children’s parents or guardians upon intake and upon completion of the clinical year. In keeping with standard Nordoff-Robbins clinical practice, all therapy sessions will be video recorded, with the written consent of children’s parents or guardians. Selected therapy sessions from different points in the course of therapy (i.e., upon intake, at the mid-point of the clinical year, and toward the end of the clinical year) are rated with respect to children’s social reciprocity, mirroring, and emotional attunement, using an observation instrument adapted from the Individualized Music Therapy Assessment Profile (IMTAP) and the Music Therapy Communication and Social Interaction scale (MTCSI). Observable behaviors rated in music therapy sessions may involve, for example, the matching of dynamics, tempo, or timbre; responsive imitation of rhythmic patterns or melodic phrases; or mirroring of movements, gestures, and affect. Extent of improvement on the Communication and Socialization domains of the Vineland will be assessed using within groups repeated measures analysis of variance. In addition, we are examining whether changes on the Vineland are correlated with changes observed in children’s communicative interaction within music therapy sessions over time.


Collaborative Studies

Therapeutic Preschool in Southeast Bronx
In addition to studying the effects of individual music therapy, efficacy of the intervention in group work with children on the Spectrum is being studied. Field data was collected at “These our Treasures” (TOTS), a therapeutic preschool in the southeast Bronx with a long-standing and highly regarded program of Nordoff-Robbins music therapy. Participants were 36 children, 2 through 5 years of age, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities. A lagged cohort control group design was employed, in which approximately half the children received music therapy in the fall, and half in the spring. The Vineland -II was administered to both the parents and the teachers of children in the study at the beginning, middle and end of the academic year. In addition music therapy sessions were videotaped at the beginning, middle and end of the each semester. Preliminary findings indicate greater improvements over the fall semester for the experimental group than for control group in expressive communication and receptive communication sub domains of Vineland. In addition to the Vineland, an instrument developed at the Center by an interdisciplinary team of music therapists and applied psychologists over a two year span was utilized to measure children’s communication and social interaction behaviors as observed during music therapy sessions. Correlations between this scale, the Music Therapy Communication and Social Interaction Scale (MTCSI) and the Vineland-II suggest that observed changes in music therapy generalize to other environments.

NYU Langone Medical Center
- Rusk Institute for Rehabilitation Medicine
According to statistics, approximately 795,000 cases of stroke occur annually in the United States. More than a third of stroke survivors suffer from negative mood disorders and a reduced sense of well-being, which are negative predictors of post-stroke motor recovery. The Nordoff-Robbins Center for Music Therapy and the Rusk Institute for Rehabilitation Medicine has initiated a pilot study, aiming to discover if a collaborative interdisciplinary music therapy/occupational therapy intervention can enhance upper limb functioning as well as psychological and social well-being for patients post-stroke. This intervention, named Music Therapy/Upper Limb Therapy - Integrated (MULT-I) involves a team of two Nordoff-Robbins music therapists and an occupational therapist from the Motor Recovery Laboratory at the Rusk Institute. Preliminary results have shown that this joint approach not only improved the subjects' upper limb functioning, but also self-awareness and expression through music, and peer support. This research is being funded in part by the American Music Therapy Associations’ Arthur Flagler Fultz award.

New York Eye and Ear Infirmary
- Audiology
Numerous studies have documented successful outcomes of cochlear implantation in children with profound hearing loss in relation to speech perception and language development. However, studies reveal limited beneficial outcomes of cochlear implants on music perception. This study will explore the effect of group music therapy on music perception and appreciation in prelingually deafened children with cochlear implants. The Nordoff-Robbins Center for Music Therapy and New York Eye and Ear Infirmary (NYEE) are collaborating in this research study, with the Nordoff-Robbins Center providing group music therapy and NYEE performing the testing for music perception and appreciation. The music perception test is a computerized test of music perception. The music appreciation test is a short, multiple-choice questionnaire that is administered to the child and the child’s parent.

Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders
- Speech therapy
Researchers from NYU Steinhardt’s Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders are beginning an analysis of archived video recordings of entire courses of therapy to evaluate the effectiveness of music therapy in developing speech and communication skills. Populations that are included in this study are stroke rehabilitation patients and children with autism spectrum disorders who have speech and communication disorders. This is a first step in developing a collaborative intervention combining speech and music therapy.

Instrument Development

Music Therapy Communication and Social Interaction Scale
The Music Therapy Communication and Social Interaction scale (MTCSI-Hummel-Rossi et al., 2008) was developed by our interdisciplinary team of music therapists and applied psychologists over the past two academic years to measure children's communication and social interaction behaviors as observed during music therapy sessions. Sessions are videotaped and coded in one-minute intervals. Coded behaviors include instrument use, vocalization, movement, gesture, eye contact, facial expression, parallel play, joint attention, turn-taking, and other indicators of a child's response to or initiation of communication and interaction. The MTCSI has attained high inter-rater agreement among trained observers and strong support for its content validity. It is intended to be used by specialists in child development across various disciplines, including creative arts therapists, psychologists, educators, and speech, occupational, and physical therapists.

Volunteer Research Assistantships
Volunteer research assistantships offer an invaluable opportunity for involvement in multiple facets of music therapy research. Research assistants participate in filming sessions, coding session videotapes using various observation instruments, administering developmental questionnaires to parents/caregivers of children at different points in the course of therapy, data entry and analysis, and writing articles and grant proposals. Hours are flexible. We hope you will be interested in pursuing a research assistantship here. For more information contact us at