Our Effect Sizes and Results in the Classroom and at Home
Results in the Classroom
A group randomized trial was conducted to test the efficacy of INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament in supporting the academic learning context of primary grade classrooms in underrresourced urban schools. Twenty-two elementary schools were our partners in conducting this study. All schools were in low-income neighborhoods and served families with comparable socio-demographic characteristics. Participants included 122 kindergarten and first grade teachers and 345 children and their parents. After baseline data was collected, 11of the 22 schools were randomly assigned to INSIGHTS. The other schools hosted a supplemental reading program. All schools received 10 weeks of intervention after which a number of analyses were conducted. The results of our evaluation of INSIGHTS demonstrated:
O’Connor, E.E., Cappella, E., McCormick, M.P & McClowry, S.G. (Revised and resubmitted 8/13). An examination of the efficacy of INSIGHTS in enhancing the academic learning context. Journal of Educational Psychology.
Two-level hierarchical linear models revealed children enrolled in INSIGHTS experienced significantly faster growth in math and reading achievement and sustained attention than children enrolled in the supplemental reading program. In addition, although children participating in INSIGHTS evidenced decreases in behavior problems over time, children enrolled in the supplemental reading program demonstrated increases. Final mediation models revealed that the effect of INSIGHTS on reading achievement was partially mediated through an increase in sustained attention and a reduction in behavior problems. In addition, the effects of INSIGHTS on math achievement were partially mediated through a reduction in behavior problems.
Cappella, E., O’Connor, E. E., McCormick, M., Turbeville, A., Collins, A., & McClowry, S. G. (Need to revise and resubmit). Classwide efficacy of INSIGHTS: Observed student behaviors and teacher practices in kindergarten and first grade. Elementary School Journal.
Multi-level random effects regression models showed an INSIGHTS main effect on teacher emotional support from fall to spring. This effect was magnified in first grade. First grade INSIGHTS classrooms also had higher teacher practices of classroom organization and lower student off-task behaviors over the school year compared to first grade attention control classrooms.
O’Connor, E.E., Cappella, E., McCormick, M.P & McClowry, S.G. (in press.) Enhancing the academic development of shy children: A test of the efficacy of INSIGHTS. Submitted to School Psychology Review.
Growth curve modeling showed that shy children in INSIGHTS evidenced more rapid growth in critical thinking and math than their shy peers in the attention control condition during kindergarten and the transition to first grade. In addition, the findings demonstrated that for shy children in the INSIGHTS condition there were indirect, positive effects of the treatment on math and critical thinking, occurring through behavioral engagement.
Results in the Home:
McClowry, S. G., Snow, D. L., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2005). An evaluation of the effects of INSIGHTS on the behavior of inner city primary school children Journal of Primary Prevention, 26, 567-584.
A prevention trial was conducted to evaluate whether INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament as compared to a Read Aloud attention control condition was more effective in reducing behavior problems among inner city children.
A repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance with parental depression as a covariate was conducted to examine the children's behavior over the course of the intervention. In order to test the impact of INSIGHTS for the overall sample and to determine whether the intervention was differentially effective for children diagnosed with a disruptive disorder versus those who did not receive a diagnosis, two and three-way interactions were examined and found to be significant. The INSIGHTS intervention was more effective than Read Aloud in reducing children's problem behaviors at home across both the diagnosed and non-diagnosed groups, but demonstrated a significantly greater efficacy among children who were at diagnostic levels compared to those who were within normal levels.