James Macinko

Associate Professor of Public Health and Health Policy

James Macinko

Phone: 212-998-5592


James Macinko is Associate Professor of Public Health and Health Policy in the Department of Nutrition, Food Studies, and Public Health and theRobert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service. He currently directs the NYU MPH Program in the NYU Global Institute of Public Health His work focuses on health policy from a global perspective with emphasis on health services and systems. Main areas of research include assessingthe impact of health reforms and policy changes, developing tools to evaluate health system performance, and exploring the role of health policies and services in the production and potential reduction of health disparities. Dr. Macinko was formerly a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health and Society Scholar at the University of Pennsylvania and a Fulbright Scholar in Brazil.  His field experience has included evaluation of primary health care programs and policies in Brazil and in other Latin America and Caribbean countries; assessment of microenterprise development programs in Sub-Saharan Africa; assisting the US Agency for International Development and the World Health Organization to develop indicators for assessing infectious disease prevention and control programs in Sub-Saharan Africa; and working with the Latino communities in Washington DC, Philadelphia and New York City to identify and eliminate barriers to primary health care. Macinko's research has been funded by the National Institutes of Health (NICHD, NIAAA), the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Pan American Health Organization, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the World Bank.


Degrees Held

  • Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University 2002
    Health and Social Policy
  • M.A. George Washington University 1993
    International Health and Development
  • B.S. University of Arizona 1990
    Molecular and Cellular Biology
  • B.A. University of Arizona 1990
    Comparative Religious Studies

Research Interests

  • Primary health care
  • Global health
  • Health services research
  • Social epidemiology

Grants and Contracts

  • Macinko J, and Silver, D. Understanding the diffusion of state alcohol and traffic laws. NIH/NIAAA (1R01AA021436-01), Role: PI (with Diana Silver), 7/2012-6/2015
  • Macinko J. Assessing Primary Health Care Systems in the Americas. Role: PI. Pan American Health Organization. 2011-2012. 
  • Lima-Costa, F. and Macinko J. Role of neighborhood, health system, and household environment characteristics on control of noncommunicable diseases in Brazil: a household survey of the city of Belo Horizonte. Co-PI. Agency: Brazilian Ministry of Health. 2009-2012. 
  • Elo IT and Macinko J. Explaining Black-White Differences in Avoidable Mortality in the United States, 1980-2007. Co-PI. NIH/NICHD (1R21HD060175-01A1), 2009-2011. 
  • Macinko J and D. Silver. A framework for understanding state health policy variation. Role: PI. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Public Health Law Research, 2009-2011. 
  • Macinko J, and Dourado, I. Primary health care and chronic diseases in Brazil. Role: PI. Inter-American Development Bank, 2009. 
  • Dourado, I, Macinko J, Veneza, B. Ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations and primary care in Brazil. Role: Co-principal invesitigator. Agency: Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2007-2011.

Selected Publications

  • Lima-Costa MF, De Oliveira C, Macinko J, Marmot M. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in older adults in Brazil and England. Am J Public Health. 2012 Aug;102(8):1535-41. Epub 2012 Jun 14. (link)
  • Macinko J, Lima-Costa MF. Horizontal equity in health care utilization in Brazil, 1998-2008. Int J Equity Health. 2012 Jun 21;11(1):33. (link)
  • Paim J, Travassos C, Almeida C, Bahia L, Macinko J. The Brazilian health system: history, advances, and challenges. The Lancet. (2011) May 9 (link)
  • Macinko, J., F.Lima-Costa, et al. The Influence of Primary Care and Hospital Supply on Ambulatory Care Sensitive Hospitalizations among Adults in Brazil, 1999-2007. American Journal of Public Health. February 14, 2011. (link)
  • Macinko J, Camargos V, Firmo JO, Lima-Costa MF. Predictors of 10-year hospital use in a community-dwelling population of Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging. Cad Saude Publica. 2011;27 Suppl 3:S336-44. (link)
  • Uyei J, Coetzee D, Macinko J, Guttmacher S. Integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis services in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Nov;11(11):855-67. (link)
  • Macinko J, Lima Costa MF. Access to, use of and satisfaction with health services among adults enrolled in Brazil's Family Health Strategy: evidence from the 2008 National Household Survey. Trop Med Int Health. 2011 Aug 21: 17(1):36-42. (link)
  • Macinko, J. Dourado, I, et al. (2010). Major expansion of primary care in Brazil linked to decline in unnecessary hospitalization. Health Aff (Millwood). 2010 Dec;29(12):2149-60. (link)
  • Black, J. & J. Macinko. (2010). The Changing Distribution and Determinants of Obesity in the Neighborhoods of New York City, 2003-2007. American Journal of Epidemiology 171(7):765-75. (link)
  • Black, J., J. Macinko, B. Dixon, E. Frye. (2010). Neighborhoods and Obesity in New York City. Health & Place. May;16(3):489-99 (link)
  • Turci MA, Lima-Costa MF, Proietti FA, Cesar CC, Macinko J. (2010). Intraurban differences in the use of ambulatory health services in a large Brazilian city. J Urban Health. Dec;87(6):994-1006. (link)
  • Macinko, J. & Elo, I. (2009). Black-White Differences in Avoidable Mortality in the United States, 1980-2005. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health Sep; 63(9):715-21 (link)
  • Macinko, J. Starfield, B. & E. Erinosho (2009). The impact of primary healthcare on population health in low- and middle-income countries. Journal of Ambulatory Care Management 32 (2): 149-170. (link)
  • Guanais, F. & J. Macinko (2009). The health effects of primary care decentralization in Brazil. Health Aff (Millwood). Jul-Aug; 28(4):1127-35. (link)
  • Guanais, F. & J. Macinko (2009). Primary care and avoidable hospitalizations: Evidence from Brazil. Journal of Ambulatory Care Management 32 (2): 114-21. (link)
  • Black, J. & J. Macinko. (2008). Neighborhoods and obesity: A review. Nutrition Reviews 66(1):1-19. (link)
  • Shi, L. & J. Macinko. (2008). Changes in Medical Care Experiences in Racial and Ethnic Groups in the US, 1996-2002. International Journal of Health Services 38(4):653–670. (link)
  • Macinko, J. Starfield, B. L. Shi. (2007). Primary Care Physician Supply and Health Outcomes in the United States: a Meta-analysis. International Journal of Health Services 31(1): 111-26. (link)
  • Souza, M.F., Macinko, J. et al (2007). Reductions in firearm-related mortality and hospitalizations in Brazil following gun control. Health Affairs 26(2):575-84. (link)
  • Macinko, J. Montenegro, H. Nebot, C., et al. (2007). La renovación de la atención primaria de salud en las Américas [Renewing Primary Health Care in the Americas]. Rev Panam Salud Publica/Pan Am J Public Health 21(2/3): 73-84. (link)
  • Macinko, J., Montenegro, H. and C. Nebot. (2007). Renewing Primary Health Care in the Americas: A Position Paper of the Pan American Health Organization. Washington, DC: PAHO/WHO. (link)
  • Macinko, J. Almeida, C. de Sá, P. (2007). A Rapid Assessment Methodology for the Evaluation of Primary Care Organization and Performance in Brazil. Health Policy & Planning 22(3):167-77. (link)
  • Macinko, J. Guanais, F. & F. Souza. (2006). An Evaluation of the Impact of the Family Health Program on Infant Mortality in Brazil, 1990-2002. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60:13-19. (link)
  • Macinko, J. & C. Almeida (2006). A rapid appraisal methodology for monitoring and evaluating the organization and performance of primary care services at the local level [In Portuguese]. Brasília: Pan American Health Organization, Office of Technical Cooperation in Brazil. (link)
  • Starfield, B., Shi, L., Grover,A., Macinko, J. (2005). The effects of specialist supply on population health: assessing the evidence. Health Affairs W(5): 97-107. (link)
  • Shi, L., Macinko, J. Starfield, B. Politzer, & J. Xu. (2005). Primary care, race and mortality in the United States. Social Science & Medicine 61(1):65-75. (link)
  • Starfield, B. Shi, L. & J. Macinko. (2005). Primary care impact on health outcomes: A literature review. Milbank Quarterly 83(3): 457-502. (link)
  • Shi, L., Macinko, J. Starfield, B. Politzer, R. Wulu, J. & J. Xu. (2004) Primary Care, Social Inequalities, and All-Cause, Heart Disease, and Cancer Mortality in U.S. Counties, 1990. American Journal of Public Health (forthcoming). (link)
  • Macinko, J., Shi, L., and B. Starfield. (2004). Wage inequality, health care, and infant mortality in 19 industrialized countries. Social Science & Medicine 58(2): 279-292. (link)
  • Shi, L. Macinko, J. Starfied, B. (2004). Primary care, social inequalities, and birth outcomes in U.S. states (Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 58(5):374-80).
  • Shi L, Macinko J, Starfield B, Wulu J, Regan J, Politzer R.(2003). The relationship between primary care, income inequality, and mortality in US States, 1980-1995. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice Sep-Oct;16 (5):412-22.
  • Macinko, J., Shi, L., Starfield, B., and J. Wulu. (2003). Income inequality, primary care, and health outcomes-a critical review of the literature. Medical Care Research and Review 60(4):407-52.
  • Shi, L., Macinko, J., Starfield, B. and R. Politzer. (2003). Primary care, social inequality, and stroke mortality in U.S. states--a longitudinal analysis, 1985-1995. Stroke 34(8): 1958-64.
  • Macinko, J., Starfield, B. and L. Shi. (2003) The contribution of primary care systems to health outcomes in OECD countries, 1970-1998. Health Services Research 38 (3): 819-854.
  • Macinko, J. and B. Starfield. (2001). The utility of social capital in studies on health determinants. Milbank Quarterly 79 (3): 387-428.
  • Macinko, J. and B. Starfield (2002). Annotated bibliography on equity in health. Intl J of Equity in Health 1(1): 1-20.
  • Rodriguez-Garcia, R., Macinko, J., and W. Waters. (2001). Microenterprise Development for Better Health Outcomes. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing. (link)


  • 2006 : Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health & Society Scholar
  • 2001 : Fulbright Scholar/Brazil


  • PUHE-GE 2355 - Social and Behavioral Determinants of Health
  • PUHE-UE 1310 - Introduction to Global Health (undergraduate)
  • GPH-GU 2120  - Integrated Seminar: Fundamental of Global Health
  • GPH-GU.2900  - Global Health Services Research in Brazil (NYU/UFBA)

Editorial Boards

Editorial Board, Journal of Ambulatory Care management, 2009-present